Friends of Woodthorpe Grange Park 2018
1933 – 1945
The Road to War and Peace
30 January: Adolph Hitler becomes the Chancellor of Germany
5 March: Japanese troops reach the Great Wall of China
27 February: Reichstag fire, Reprisals against Socialist and Communist Parties.
1933: Japanese Troops at the Great Wall of China
1933: Reichstag Fire
27 March: Japan gives notice that she is to leave the League of Nations.
2 May: Nazis take control of German Trades Unions.
19 June: Nazi activities in Austria banned.
2 November: Danzig authorities order all their police to become Nazis.
26 January Germany and Poland sign a ten year peace pact.
17 April: UK Budget 6d (2.5p) off income tax.
30 June: “Purge” of the Nazi Party (Night of the Long Knives). Official estimate that 77 victims were murdered on orders given by Hitler.
1934: Night of the Long Knives
22 September: Wrexham Colliery Disaster, over 200 miners were killed.
1934: Wrexham Colliery Disaster
29 November: Marriage of the Duke of Kent and Princess Marina of Greece.
Duke of Kent and Princess Marina
14 January: British road accidents for 1934: Killed – 7,343; Injured – 231,608.
1 March: The Sarr is formally returned to Germany.
4 March: The first British Parliamentary White Paper on rearmament.
16 March: Germany announces military conscription.
German Military Conscription
1935: Oath of allegiance to Adolph Hitler
7 April: Elections in Danzig, Nazis poll 60 per cent.
15 September: Reichstag passes the “Nuremburg Laws” against Jews and adopted the Swastika flag as sole emblem of the Reich.
Public humiliation of three Jewish Businessmen
The Swastika flag
3 October: Italy declares war on Abyssinia.
1935: Italian Soldiers after the invasion of Abyssinia
20 January: The Death of King George V.
Daily Mirror Headlines
22 January: Proclamation of King Edward VIII.
7 March: German troops occupy the Rhineland.
1935: Proclamation of King Edward VIII.
1936: Re-occupation of the Rhineland
21 April: Budget, 3d on Income Tax.
5 May: Mussolini announces the occupation of Addis Ababa and the end of the Abyssinian War.
18 July: Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
7th November: Heavy bombing of Madrid begins.
1936: Heavy bombing of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War
24th November: German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact signed. This was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan
1936: Anti-Comintern Pact signed.
10 December: King Edward VIII’s Abdication announced.
To listen to King Edward VIII abdication speech, click on the disc icon.
1936: Abdication of King Edward VIII
11 March: German occupation of Austria.
13 March: Germany Annexes Austria.
21 March: Austria withdraws from the League of Nations.
13 September: Martial Law declared in Czechoslovakia.
15 September: Chamberlain visits Hitler at Berchtesgaden.
29 September: The Munich Peace Conference.
1937: Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth
10 January: British Ban of Volunteers for the Spanish Civil War.
12 May: Coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
18 May: Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister.
12 December: Italy withdraws from the League of Nations.
13 December: Japanese troops capture and sack the Chinese city of Nanjing.
1937: Nanjing Massacre
1938: Chamberlain and Hitler meet at Berchtesgaden
1938: Munich Peace Conference
30 September: Chamberlain returns to London following the Munich Peace agreement with a peace of paper with his and Hitler’s signature as proof of Britain and Germany never to go to war with one another again.
To read what was agreed at the Munich Peace Conference and to download a copy in PDF, click on the agreement icon.
1938: Peace in our Time
1 October: German Troops begin the occupation of the Sudetenland.
24 March: Britain and France guarantee Poland’s frontiers.
3 April: Hitler orders Wehrmacht to prepare to invade Poland.
20 August: Russia and Germany sign trade agreement.
29 August: Hitler announces that he will negotiate on Poland providing an emissary arrives in Berlin by noon the following day. Hitler’s demands are rejected.
31 August: At 4pm Hitler orders the invasion of Poland to commence at dawn the following day.
1 September: German forces invade Poland. Italy proclaims non-belligerent status. Scandinavian countries and the Baltic declare their neutrality.
2 September: The Republic of Ireland declares its neutrality.
3 September: Britain and France declare war on Germany. India, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany. Belgium declares her neutrality. Last day of evacuations in Britain. “SS Athenia” torpedoed and sunk by a U-Boat in contravention of a direct order from Hitler. Nationwide air raid alerts.
1939: Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces to the nation that war has been declared
To listen to the Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announcing to the nation that war has been declared, click on the disc icon.
One of the rescued survivors following the sinking of the SS Athenia
4 September: Advanced units of the British Expeditionary Force land in France.
10 September: Canada declares war on Germany.
17 September: Soviet Russia invades Poland.
To hear the sound of an air raid warning, click on the disc icon.
1939: British Expeditionary lands in France
27 September: Poland surrenders. Sir John Simon introduces Britain’s first Emergency War Budget.
Sir John Simon
29 September: Russia and Germany formally divide Poland between themselves.
6 October: Hitler offers a peace settlement to Britain and France.
11 October: British Expeditionary Force strength stands at 158,000 men.
12 October: Hitler’s peace proposals rejected.
14 October: HMS Royal Oak torpedoed sunk in Scapa Flow.
HMS Royal Oak
16 October: Nottingham Comforts Fund started. Twice a year the cash equivalent of fifty cigarettes a man was to be cabled to every Nottinghamshire unit wherever they might be serving. By 1944 the fund was also sending each of the 2,550 Nottinghamshire men in Prisoner of War Camps 200 cigarettes every six weeks. The Comforts Fund also distributed 30,000 knitted in in the city to the armed services.
26 October: King George VI visits Nottingham’s Royal Ordnance Factory
1939: King George VI at Nottingham ‘s Royal Ordnance Factory
8 November: Assassination attempt on Adolph Hitler.
30 November: Russia Invades Finland.
3 December: Conscription in Britain is extended to all males aged between 19 – 41. Females aged 20 – 30 are required to work as auxiliaries or on defence jobs.
29 December: Finns defeat the Russians at Suommusalmi.
1 January: Nottingham War Savings campaign launched.
5 January: Hoare-Belisha sacked as Minister of War.
8 January: Rationing of basic foodstuffs begins in Britain.
Leslie Hore Belisha
Ration book, bacon and sugar
27 January: Winston Churchill speaks in public at Manchester on the need to expand the number of jobs for the war effort (there are still 1 million unemployed).
4 February: With 150 drivers off work due to illness, Trent Motor Traction suspends all services for the day in order to give its fit crews a day off.
11 February: Russia launches a massive attack on Finland.
17 February: 400,000 more children evacuated from British cities.
1940: Russian Invasion of Finland
4 May: A countrywide ARP exercise was held. Some 10,000 Nottingham ARP workers were involved, dealing with more than sixty ‘incidents’ ranging from realistic fire and explosion staged at a disused factory of the Springfield Hosiery Co., Radford Road, Basford, to numerous incendiary fires at private houses. For the benefit of the exercise, it was assumed that 80 high explosive, 200 incendiary, and twelve gas bombs had been dropped on the city.
12 March: Russian – Finnish war ends.
29 March: Russia declares her neutrality in the European War.
9 April: The Allies invade Occupied Norway.
World War 2 Fire Fighting Demonstration, Forest Recreation Ground, Nottingham
10 May: Germany Invades the European Low Countries. Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister
13 May: Germany Invades France, Liege falls.
18 May: Antwerp falls to the Germans.
26 May: Operation Dynamo, the rescue of allied troops from the beaches of Dunkirk.
1940: The rescue of allied soldiers from the beaches of Dunkirk, North France
1940: Dover Harbour
1940: Norwegian Campaign
7 June: Barton’s Buses Nottingham begin experiments with gas-producer equipment to save fuel.
10 June: Norwegian Campaign comes to an end.
14 June: Anthony Eden appeals for men to join the Local Defence Volunteers,
1940: End of the Norwegian Campaign
1940: Local Defence Volunteers, later re-named Home Guard
18 June: Italy declares war on France and Great Britain.
30 June:Guernsey occupied by the Germans.
2 July: Operation Sea lion, Hitler Issues orders for the invasion of Great Britain.
1940: Preparing landing craft for the German invasion of Great Britain
9 July: First conductresses at work on Nottingham City Transport buses.
14 July: Two minor earth tremours in the Nottingham area have people jumping out of their beds believing an air raid was taking place.
19 July: Hitler offers peace terms to Britain.
15 August: Luftwaffe launch and all-out assault in an attempt to cripple the R.A.F.
1940: Squadron Scramble during height of the Battle of Britain
30/31 August: First bombs fall in Nottingham on Fairbank Crescent off Hood Street and Mapperley Street in Sherwood, Nottingham. The city’s first air raid victim is a baby boy.
7 September: The London Blitz begins.
1940: The Dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral during the height of the Blitz on London
15 November: Two bombs dropped on the Wollaton area in Nottingham.
28/29 November: Nottingham’s longest air raid so far lasting from 6.55pm till 4.00am.
15 January: Bombs drop on Colwick Road area. Fifteen people were killed and fourteen injured.
21 January: “Daily Worker” closed down under Defence Regulations. Tobruk falls to British and Australian troops.
4 February: Bomb dropped on Lucknow Drive, Mapperley Park., Nottingham.
12 February: German troops land at Triploi.
1940: Repairing bomb damage, Hood Street
24/25 September: Vichy French planes bomb Gibraltar.
3 October: Neville Chamberlain now a very sick man resigns from the Government.
19 October: Three incendiary bombs dropped on West Bridgford.
28 October: Italy invades Greece.
31 October: First daylight raid in the Nottingham area. Five bombs dropped on Chilwell, Bramcote.
8 November: Greeks defeat the Italians.
9 November: Neville Chamberlain dies.
14/15 November: Coventry devastated in an eleven-hour raid. Nottingham send fire appliances to the raid of the stricken city. Nottingham ARP requested to help with the feeding the people and send mobile canteen with food for 500 people
1941: German troops land at Tripol
14 March: twelve bombs dropped on Ribblesdale Road area. Sherwood, Nottingham.
28 March: Nottingham’s adopted warship HMS Orion plays a key role in the Battle of Cape Matapan.
5 April: German troops invade Greece.
8 April: Ten bombs plus incendiaries dropped on Beeston, Nottingham.
11 April: Bombs dropped on Western Boulevard.
20 April: Greeks Surrender.
8/9 May: Nottingham’s Blitz. The destruction extended from the edge of Mapperley Park across Woodborough Road and St. Ann’s Well Road. Also hit were the Lace Market, Sneinton, Leenside and so on. The majority of Nottingham’s air raid victims were killed during this attack.
Aftermath of the 8/9 May 1941 Air Raid on Nottingham
Firemen after putting out the fire in St. Mary’s Church, in the Lace Market
Adams Building, Stoney Street
The Poultry, deserted during a threat of an air raid
Broadway, Lace Market deserted during a threat of an air raid
An example of Nottingham’s underground air raid shelters
The morning of 9 May 1941 after the air raid on Nottingham
10 May: Rudolph Hess lands in Scotland.
14 May: Daylight raid on Nottingham. Three bombs dropped on Canal Street.
22 June: Operation Barbarossa, Germany Invades Russia on an 1,800-mile front with 3 million troops, 3,580 tanks, 1,830 warplanes and 600,000 vehicles.
1941: Operation Barbarossa
18 August: National Fire Service formed.
2 September: German Troops within twenty miles of the Kremlin.
22 September: “Tanks for Russia Week” begins in British arms factories.
1 December: German Armour within 9 miles of the Kremlin.
7 December: Japanese carrier planes attack the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. The United States and Britain declare war on the Empire of Japan.
1941: Pearl Harbor
11 December: Germany declares war on America.
Los Angeles Times 8 December 1941
15 February: Singapore falls to the Japanese.
2 March: Beeston’s Warship Week raises £276,000. The town adopts HMS Active.
4/8 May: Battle of the Coral Sea.
1942: The fall of Singapore
1942: Battle of the Coral Sea.
6 May: Corregidor falls to the Japanese.
1942: Corregidor falls to the Japanese.
4/7 June: Battle of Midway. and the destruction of the Japanese 1 Carrier Fleet
1942: Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma- sinks after being put out of action during the Battle of Midway.
21 June: Tobruk falls to Rommel. The 1st Battalion Sherwood Foresters are among 33,000 British Troops to surrender.
1942: Fall of Tobruk
24 July: Lone raider drops four bombs on Sneinton Dale district. A fire watcher is killed.
9 August: Operation Jubilee, Canadian and British raiding forces land at Dieppe in Northern France.
1942: Battle of Guadalcanal
7 August: (Operation Watchtower) Beginning of the Battle of Guadalcanal.
1942: An abandoned British Daimler Dingo on Dieppe Beach
25 August: The Duke of Kent is killed in a plane crash.
23 September: Spearheaded by the German 6th Army and elements of the 4th Panzer Army, with air support given by the Luftwaffe, the Battle Stalingrad begins.
1942: The battle of Stalingrad
4 November: Rommel’s Afrika Korps defeated by Montgomery’s 8th Army at the Battle of El Alamein.
1942: Field Marshall Montgomery at the Battle of El Alamein
8 November: Operation Touch, Allied invasion of French North Africa.
1942: Operation Touch
31 January: On the same day on which he was informed of his promotion to field marshal by Hitler, General von Paulus the commander of the German 6th Army, surrenders following the four month Battle of Stalingrad.
1943: General von Paulus
9 February: The end of the Battle of the Battle of Guadalcanal.
4 March: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visit Nottingham.
1943: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth
Lord Mayor’s Signature Book
13 March: Assassination attempt on Hitler fails.
20 March: Another assassination attempt on Hitler fails.
12 May: Surrender of Axis forces in North Africa.
1943: Parade of the Home Guard
24 July: RAF attack Hamburg with 740 planes.
25 July: RAF attack Essen with 627 planes.
1943:Invasion of Sicily
16/17 May: Operation Chastise, 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force (Dambusters Sqaudron) attack the Möhne and Edersee dams using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis.
17 May: Home Guard Parade through the Centre of Nottingham.
1943: The aftermath of the Dambusters Raid
2 June: The King’s Birthday Honours List includes Mr. T. H. Barton of Barton Transport. Beeston, Nottingham who was awarded the OBE for his services to passenger transport..
10 July: Operation Husky, Allied forces land in Sicily.
1943: Aftermath of Operation Gomorrah
27 July: Operation Gomorrah, RAF attack Hamburg with 739 planes. 20,000 men, women and children are thought to have died in the firestorm created by the incendiary bombs.
8 September: Italian surrender made public through a secret armistice signed on the 3 of September.
13 September: Italy declares war on Germany.
14 January: The Butler Education Act is published.
22 January: The Allies land on the Italian coast at Anzio.
2 December: Social Insurance and Allied Services - The Beveridge Report is published.
R. A. Butler
1944: The Anzio Bridgehead
27 January: Barton’s gasbag buses covered a total of 893,000 miles and saved 162,000 gallons of fuel
One Barton’s gasbag buses
6 June: D Day, Allies land on the beaches of Normandy in France
1944: D Day Normandy Invasion
22 June: Russia launches her summer offensive on a 300 mile front.
20 July: Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia
Claus von Stauffenberg
24 July: “Hitler salutes” made a mandatory form of salute in the German Army.
12 August: Nottingham’s War Savings to date had raised £38,237,493.
25 August: Liberation of Paris.
1944: Liberation of Paris
17 to 25 September: Operation Market Garden an unsuccessful military operation fought in the Netherlands.The objective was to create a 64 mi (103 km) salient (bulge formation of troops) into German territory with a bridgehead over the River Rhine, creating an Allied invasion route into northern Germany.
Allied paratroopers descending over the Netherlands, during Operation Market Garden
30 September: Part demobilisation of the National Fire Service begins. The release came under the Ministry of Labour and National Service and were liable to be called up for the armed forces or be directed to industry dependent on their age.
13 December: The Home Guard are stood down.
16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945: launched through the densely forested Ardennes region in Belgium and Luxembourg towards the end of the war in Europe. The offensive was intended to stop Allied use of the Belgian port of Antwerp and to split the Allied lines, allowing the Germans to encircle and destroy four Allied armies and force the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis powers' favour.
1944: Battle of the Bulge
1 January: Lloyd George made a peer.
13/15 February: 722 heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force and 527 of the United States Army Air Forces dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the undefended city of Dresden. The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres of the city centre. An estimated 22,700 to 25,000 people were killed.
1945: The aftermath of the bombing of Dresden
7 March: United States troops cross the Rhine at Remagen.
1945: Bridge over the Rhine at Remagen
23 March: Operation Plunder, British troops cross the Rhine.
1945: The Rhine Offensive
1 April: Cheese ration cut.
12 April: President Roosevelt dies.
23 April: Blackout restrictions lifted.
25 April: U.S. and Russian troops meet at the River Elbe.
28 April: Crowds gathered in Piazzale Loreto, Milan, Italy, to see the bodies of Benito Mussolini, his mistress Claretta Petacci, and other Fascists hanging by their feet following their execution.
1945: Headlines,The New York Times
1945 Russian and US Forces meet at the River Elbe
1945: Piazzale Loreto, Milan, Italy,
29 April: German forces in Italy surrender.
1945: Surrendered German troops march through Milan
30 April: Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun both commit suicide in the Führerbunker in Berlin.
Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun
Führerbunker in Berlin
1 May: Last ARP workers given a months’ notice.
4 May: Surrender of German forces in North West Europe.
7 May: Unconditional surrender of all German forces.
8 May: Victory in Europe (V.E. Day).
1945: German Forces Surrender to Field Marshal Montgomery
8 May 1945: V.E. Day: Crowds celebrate in Nottingham’s Old Marklet Square
8 May 1945: Headlines, Nottingham Evening Post
23 May: Churchill resigns and forms a caretaker government.
5 July: UK’s Post-War General Election, first General Election since 1935.
5 July 1945: Headlines, Daily Express
26 July: Labour Party sweeps to victory with a 393-seat majority in Parliament.
6 August:: Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
9 August:: Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki.
To listen to the BBC announcement of the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, click on the disc icon.
The mushroom cloud of the first atomic bomb that was drop on Hiroshima
14 August: Surrender of Japanese forces.
1945: Japan Surrenders
1 September: Clothing ration cut by 25 per cent.
19 September: William Joyce (Lord Haw Haw) sentenced to death for treason. William Brooke Joyce (24 April 1906 – 3 January 1946), nicknamed Lord Haw-Haw, was an American-born fascist politician and Nazi propaganda broadcaster to the United Kingdom during World War II. He took German citizenship in 1940.
Joyce was convicted of one count of high treason in 1945 and sentenced to death, with the Court of Appeal and the House of Lords both upholding his conviction. He was hanged on 3 January 1946, making him the last person to be executed for treason in the United Kingdom.
William Joyce (Lord Haw Haw) shortly after his capture.in 1945
1 October: Restaurant cars restored to trains (3 course lunch 3s 6d).
8 October: Ban on central heating in shops, offices and places of entertainment is lifted.
23 October: .Income Tax reduced from 10s (50p) to 9s (45p) in the pound.
20 December: Labour controls end.